A monocultivated potato field Some people choose to be vegetarian or vegan for environmental reasons. According to a report by LEAD Livestock's Long Shadow"the livestock sector emerges as one of the top two or three most significant contributors to the most serious environmental problems, at every scale from local to global.
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This article has been cited by other articles in PMC. The latter arguments also can be divided to two subgroups. In the first one which named anthropocentrism, just humankind has inherent value in the moral society, and it studies the problem just from a human-based point of view while in second named, biocentrism all the living organism have this value and it deals specially with the problem from the animal-based viewpoint.
In this descriptive-analytic study, ethical issues were retrieved from books, papers, international guidelines, thesis, declarations and instructions, and even some weekly journals using keywords related to transgenic animals, organ, and transplantation.
Transgenic Animals, Organ Transplantation, Animal Welfare, Xenotransplantation Introduction Today, organ transplantation has attracted many attentions, and has socially caused a lot of worry. The main problem is the imbalance between the organ transplant request and the number of organs ready to transplanting.
At present, patients tolerate not only the pain caused by organ malfunction, but also psychological tensions while waiting to receive healthy organs. Inin America, it was estimated that almost people were in the waiting list to receive organs while every day, 13 people died due to lack of required healthy organs at a crucial moment 1.
Nowadays, there is remarkable progress in different organ transplant techniques which are classified into two general types. Homograft is used when both the donor and the recipient of the cell have tissue or the organ belongs to one biological species, despite their genetic differences.
Another method, called Xenograft, is applied when the donor and the recipient belong to the two different biological species 2.
Xeno means stranger and alien in Latin 3. Therefore, based on the definition of this technique, each process involving transplant, implantation of animal cells, tissue or the organs injection to a human receiver is called Xenograft 4.
This method based on the degree of evolutionary and biological closeness between the donor and the recipient is classified in two types, entitled consonant and disconsonant 4.
In the consonant type, two biological species are close, both genetically and biologically for example transplantation from various monkey species to humans, while in disconsonant there is not an obvious genetic closeness, like transplanting from pigs to humans 5.
Historical studies have indicated that with developing skills and knowledge in the field of medicine, human has increased his exploitations of animals in order to transplanting their tissues and organs into human beings. Catgut suture, originally made from intestines of sheep, is well known among physicians.
Nonetheless, attempts to use an organ completely started in early 20th century. The transplanted organ is identified as alien. Therefore, the immune system rejects it to protect the body.
Based on time, this immunological reaction occurs in three forms of hyper-acute, acute, and chronic rejections. In the first form, the transplanted organ is rejected within only seconds or minutes after the transplantation; in the second form, this rejection happens after some days to a week; and in the third, in longer-term, within some weeks to years 9.
In xenograft, mostly, we are dealing with hyper acute and acute rejections In order to overcome this obstacle, scientists and physicians have shown great interest in using transgenic animals through applying genetic engineering. So, it is expected that these animals whose genomes have been modified or manipulated are going to be wildly used in medical or agricultural fields Since then, this technology has improved a lot and is being conducted on plants and animals.
The first genetically engineered mouse was created almost three decades ago, and up to now, many transgenic farm animals have been produced Currently, transgenic animals are widely used in biology, medicine, and biotechnology.
It is expected that transgenic animals can provide an applicable source for human organ transplantations. Nevertheless, regarding organ transplant, pigs are now focused. Although primates can be selected as good options due to genetic closeness, many of them, like various monkey species, are in danger of extinction.
While their pregnancy and growth rate are also long, so they are not widely studied. However, the pig is a domestic animal whose keeping and breeding is easy, growing is rapid, time of pregnancy is short, and organ size is close to the human. So it is chosen as the first option In this study, we tried to present and organize all the ethical arguments in a relatively new way and discuss and present answers and finally give the ethical justification of the subject according to current conditions.
In this descriptive-analytic study, ethical issues were retrieved from books, papers, international guidelines, thesis, declarations and instructions, and even some weekly journals using keywords related to transgenic animals, the organ, and transplantation.CAFO (Concentrated Animal Feeding Operation): The Tragedy of Industrial Animal Factories provides an unprecedented view of concentrated animal feeding operations—aka CAFOs—where increasing amounts of the world’s meat, milk, eggs, and seafood are produced.
As the photos and essays in this powerful book demonstrate, the rise of the CAFO industry around the world has become one of the most. The Merciless World of the CAFO The CAFO is the ultimate expression of the industrialization of nature. If all of us knew more about the realities of modern industrial animal food production, however, one would hope that we would apply the collective brakes on this dietary, environmental, and ethical madness.
Ethical vegetarians and ethical vegans may also object to the practices underlying the production of meat, or cite their concerns about animal welfare, animal rights, environmental ethics, and religious reasons.
In response, some proponents of meat-eating have adduced various scientific, nutritional, cultural, and religious arguments in support.
Ethical Implications for Meat Production.
Ethics and Climate Change in Asia and the Pacific (ECCAP) Project Ethical issues arising from the interactions of selected meat companies in the Philippines Concentrated Animal Feeding Operation COD: Chemical Oxygen Demand.
Concentrated Animal Feeding Operations The specialization and industrialization of American agriculture during the past several decades has resulted in an increased number of agricultural facilities that house and feed a .
Oct 04, · In this descriptive-analytic study, ethical issues were retrieved from books, papers, international guidelines, thesis, declarations and instructions, and even some weekly journals using keywords related to transgenic animals, the organ, and transplantation.