Her ancestors were of Dutch and English descent and were all in America before
He is remembered in Europe for the effort he gave to establishing a European style of social psychologyone that recognized the social, political, and historical context within which social behaviour takes place.
A fluent French speaker, he served in the French army, was captured by the invading German forces inand spent the rest of the conflict as a prisoner of war. His survival depended on his assuming a French identity and concealing his Polish Jewish heritage.
After the war, he spent six years helping to rehabilitate war victims and refugees and to repatriate or resettle them in other countries. Those events affected him deeply and provided him with important intellectual signposts for his later research and writing on discrimination against minorities and on how identity is shaped by nationality and ethnic group membership.
Regarding his own wartime experience, he observed that, had his Polish Jewish identity been revealed, his fate would have been determined by his social category. Tajfel married in and moved to England in As an undergraduate student at Birkbeck, University of Londonhe won a scholarship for an essay on prejudice.
He graduated inworked as a research assistant at the University of Durham, and later became a lecturer in social psychology at the University of Oxford. In he was appointed to a chair in social psychology at Bristol University, a post that he held until his death. Bristol soon became a European centre for research in social psychology.
For example, a meat eater who is very hungry might mistake a blurred photographic image of a red flower for a juicy steak. Tajfel incorporated such ideas into his work on perceptual accentuation.
In one study, the stimuli were eight lines that differed in length by a constant increment. In contrast to realistic group-conflict theory, according to which intergroup conflict derives from mutually incompatible goals, Tajfel proposed that the simple act of becoming a group member is sufficient to precipitate discrimination against members of an available comparison out-group.
Thus, intergroup conflict is the result of social categorization rather than competition for tangible rewards. Social identity and intergroup relations Tajfel and his student John Turner developed social identity theory in the s. Among the key ideas of social identity theory are the following: Social categorization is a cognitive tool.
It is a more powerful determinant of intergroup discrimination than are individual-level variables, such as personality characteristics, which might be shared by both in-group and out-group members. The key to understanding out-group prejudice is that individuals know that they are members of discrete categories—i.
Social comparison is an intergroup concept, giving rise to inferences based on group membership. For example, Jane decides that she is advantaged by her ethnicity because it confers a higher status when she makes comparisons with other salient ethnic groups.
For example, Jim concludes that he is fast because he usually wins footraces against other individuals. Social identity is a crucial aspect of identity.
It is part of the self concept and is derived from the knowledge that one belongs to one or more social groups, such as a political or religious group. An individual strives to achieve positive self-definition, an outcome based on comparisons that advantage the in-group over salient out-groups.
Social change is a significant perceived alteration in the relationship between large social groups, such as national, religious, and ethnic groups.
Whereas social mobility is a change in self-definition—as when an individual moves into a new group—social change applies to a transformation of social identity for an entire social group.
Social change is the process by which people actively seek positive social identities in response to being defined negatively in a world of social inequality.
Tajfel drew widely on theory and examples from history, literaturesociologypoliticsand economics in elaborating his ideas. He went to considerable lengths to link social identity theory to large-scale social structures and to ideology.
Unlike many theorists in social psychology, Tajfel made a deliberate connection with collective movements and political action. Although Tajfel conducted experimental research and encouraged others to do the same, his goals were more ambitious, and he was explicitly opposed to reductionism in social psychological theory.
He was mindful of the scope and magnitude of North American social psychology and what it had achieved in defining the discipline in the 20th century. However, he was convinced that a European perspective could offer something different and valuable. He argued that North American social psychologists were mostly reductionist, even myopic, in their pursuit of psychological laws that applied primarily to individuals rather than to groups.NOTES: Names in lowercase are those which Roger Mansell personally added as they were not found listed in the National Archives leslutinsduphoenix.com of Mansell's additions were later added to the ADBC Collection; see NARA's very helpful PDF file for explanation of this work (), including meanings of codes used for ranks, units, etc.; For CAMP CODE general area designations, see below.
Margaret Floy Washburn was an early 20th century psychologist who conducted extensive research on animal behavior and motor development. She was the first woman to earn a PhD in psychology. Professional Life. Margaret Floy Washburn was born in New York City on July 25, Margaret Floy Washburn was the first woman to earn a doctoral degree in American psychology () and the second woman, after Mary Whiton Calkins, to serve as APA President.
Ironically, Calkins earned her doctorate at Harvard in , but the university trustees refused to grant her the degree. Margaret Floy Washburn was born in New York City on July 25, After attending Vassar College, with primary studies in philosophy and science, Washburn pursued graduate studies with James McKeen Cattell, who had recently established a new laboratory of psychology at Columbia University.
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Margaret Floy Washburn (July 25, – October 29, ), leading American psychologist in the early 20th century, was best known for her experimental work in animal behavior and motor theory leslutinsduphoenix.com: July 25, , New York City, New York, U.S.