Obeying orders

This was the earliest modern European example of the doctrine of command responsibility. Court-martial of Breaker Morant During the Second Boer Warthree Australia officers MorantHandcock and Witton were charged and tried for a number of murders, including those of prisoners who had surrendered. A significant part of the defense was that they were acting under orders issued by Lord Kitchener to "take no prisoners". However, these orders were verbal, were denied by Kitchener and his staff, and could not be validated in court, resulting in a guilty verdict against all three men.

Obeying orders

Portraits of Resistance A few hours later, black and white passengers on a Trailways bus were beaten bloody after they entered whites-only waiting rooms and restaurants at bus terminals in Birmingham and Anniston, Alabama. The bus passengers assaulted that day were Freedom Riders, among the first of more than volunteers who traveled throughout the South on regularly scheduled buses for seven months in to test a Supreme Court decision that declared segregated facilities for interstate passengers illegal.

After news stories and photographs of the burning bus and bloody attacks sped around the country, many more people came forward to risk their lives and challenge the racial status quo.

Now Eric Etheridge, a veteran magazine editor, provides a visceral tribute to those road warriors in Breach of Peace: Portraits of the Mississippi Freedom Riders. The book, a collection of Etheridge's recent portraits of 80 Freedom Riders juxtaposed with mug shots from their arrests inincludes interviews with the activists re-flecting on their experiences.

Etheridge, who grew up in Carthage, Mississippi, focuses on Freedom Riders who boarded buses to Jackson, Mississippi, from late May to mid-September He was just 4 years old at the time and unaware of the seismic racial upheaval taking place around him.

But he well remembers using one entrance to his doctor's office while African-Americans used another, and sitting in the orchestra of his local movie theater while blacks sat in the balcony.

Eric Etheridge, from Breach of Peace: Mug shot of Freedom Rider Miller Green. Courtesy of the Mississippi Department of Archives and History Miller Green, of Chicago, spent 39 days in a Mississippi prison after his arrest at a bus station: Mug shot of Freedom Rider Joan Pleune.

First alarmed at their activism, their mother took pride in being introduced as the mother of Freedom Riders. They "embraced me, taught me to play cards and sang freedom songs with me.

Mug shot of Freedom Rider Alphonso Petway.

Obeying orders

Courtesy of the Mississippi Department of Archives and History "I was by myself in the paddy wagon for a while," recalls the Rev.

Alphonso Petway, of Mobile, Alabama, who was 16 when arrested at a "white" cafeteria: I had heard horror stories of people going missing. During a visit with his parents in Jackson inhe was reminded that a lawsuit had forced the Mississippi State Sovereignty Commission, an agency created in to resist desegregation, to open its archives.

The agency files, put online inincluded more than arrest photographs of Freedom Riders. Nearly 75 percent of them were between 18 and 30 years old. About half were black; a quarter, women. Their mug-shot expressions hint at their resolve, defiance, pride, vulnerability and fear.

Have you ever seen it? The goal of the rides, CORE director James Farmer said as he launched the campaign, was "to create a crisis so that the federal government would be compelled to enforce the law. Those who could not refrain from striking back when pushed, hit, spit on or doused with liquids while racial epithets rang in their ears were rejected.

As soon as he heard the call for riders, Robert Singleton remembers, he "was fired up and ready to go. Peter Ackerberg, a lawyer who now lives in Minneapolis, said that while he'd always talked a "big radical game," he had never acted on his convictions.

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Boarding a bus in Montgomery, Alabama, "I was pretty scared," he told Etheridge. They were so spirited and so unafraid. They were really prepared to risk their lives. Vivian's] head and him shrieking; I don't think he ever said 'sir. While trying to enter a whites-only waiting room in Rock Hill, South Carolina, two men set upon him, battering his face and kicking him in the ribs.

Less than two weeks later, he joined a ride bound for Jackson. When activists arrived at the Jackson bus depot, police arrested blacks who refused to heed orders to stay out of white restrooms or vacate the white waiting room.

And whites were arrested if they used "colored" facilities. Officials charged the riders with breach of peace, rather than breaking segregation laws. Freedom Riders responded with a strategy they called "jail, no bail"—a deliberate effort to clog the penal facilities.

Most of the riders in Jackson would endure six weeks in sweltering jail or prison cells rife with mice, insects, soiled mattresses and open toilets. And that was the whole point. To keep up their spirits, the prisoners sang freedom songs.Chapter - Obeying Orders “Have you informed headquarters of their demands?” the conductor asked the security captain.

“I’ve already sent a message,” said the security . In Perpetual Remembrance. 1. We have dedicated to the welfare of the noble English nation no small portion of the Apostolic care and charity by which, helped by His grace, we endeavor to fulfill the office and follow in the footsteps of “the Great Pastor of the sheep,” Our Lord Jesus Christ.

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Spontaneous order - Wikipedia