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This older name of the city would rarely be used from this point onward except in historical or poetic contexts. Imperium Romanum, Imperium Romanorum; Greek: Res Publica Romana; Greek: Imperium Graecorum in the West to refer to the Eastern Roman Empire and of the Byzantine Emperor as Imperator Graecorum Emperor of the Greeks  were also used to separate it from the prestige of the Roman Empire within the new kingdoms of the West.
These territories were home to many different cultural groups, both urban populations and rural populations. Generally speaking, the eastern Mediterranean provinces were more urbanised than the western, having previously been united under the Macedonian Empire and Hellenised by the influence of Greek culture.
This distinction between the established Hellenised East and the younger Latinised West persisted and became increasingly important in later centuries, leading to a gradual estrangement of the two worlds.
Byzantium under the Constantinian and Valentinian dynasties To maintain control and improve administration, various schemes to divide the work of the Roman Emperor by sharing it between individuals were tried between andfrom tofrom toand again between and Although the administrative subdivisions varied, they generally involved Galen essay division of labour between East and West.
Each division was a form of power-sharing or even job-sharingfor the ultimate imperium was not divisible and therefore the empire remained legally one state—although the co-emperors often saw each other as rivals or enemies.
Inemperor Diocletian created a new administrative system the tetrarchyto guarantee security in all endangered regions of his Empire.
He associated himself with a co-emperor Augustusand each co-emperor then adopted a young colleague given the title of Caesarto share in their rule and eventually to succeed the senior partner.
The tetrarchy collapsed, however, in and a few years later Constantine I reunited the two administrative divisions of the Empire as sole Augustus.
The western part collapsed in the s while the eastern part ended with the capture of Constantinople As regards his economic policies in particular, he has been accused by certain scholars of "reckless fiscality", but the gold solidus he introduced became a stable currency that transformed the economy and promoted development.
Constantine established the principle that emperors could not settle questions of doctrine on their own, but should summon instead general ecclesiastical councils for that purpose. His convening of both the Synod of Arles and the First Council of Nicaea indicated his interest in the unity of the Church, and showcased his claim to be its head.
In and he issued a series of edicts essentially banning pagan religion. Pagan festivals and sacrifices were banned, as was access to all pagan temples and places of worship. Arcadius in the East and Honorius in the West, once again dividing Imperial administration.
In the 5th century the Eastern part of the empire was largely spared the difficulties faced by the West—due in part to a more established urban culture and greater financial resources, which allowed it to placate invaders with tribute and pay foreign mercenaries.
This success allowed Theodosius II to focus on the codification of Roman law and further fortification of the walls of Constantinoplewhich left the city impervious to most attacks until To fend off the HunsTheodosius had to pay an enormous annual tribute to Attila.
His successor, Marcianrefused to continue to pay the tribute, but Attila had already diverted his attention to the West. By urging Theodoric to conquer Italy, Zeno rid the Eastern Empire of an unruly subordinate Odoacer and moved another Theodoric further from the heart of the Empire.
He introduced a new coinage system of the copper follisthe coin used in most everyday transactions. Inthe Corpus was updated and, along with the enactments promulgated by Justinian afterformed the system of law used for most of the rest of the Byzantine era.
Belisarius contributed immensely to the expansion of the empire.The Byzantine Empire, also referred to as the Eastern Roman Empire and Byzantium, was the continuation of the Roman Empire in its eastern provinces during Late Antiquity and the Middle Ages, when its capital city was Constantinople (modern-day Istanbul, which had been founded as Byzantium).It survived the fragmentation and fall of the Western Roman Empire in the 5th century AD and continued .
1, Responses to “Newspapers and Thinking the Unthinkable” Why One Day Every Company Might Have 2 CEO’s «Dave Cunningham's blog Says: January 12, at pm. - Galen Galen was one of the greatest doctors of the ancient world. Galen performed dissections on monkeys, pigs, and other animals, and established comparative anatomy as a field of anatomy.
Galen was born in Pergamum (Present day Turkey), a city of the Roman Empire. Flavius Josephus published a history of the Jews in twenty books around 93 CE. In the 18th and 20th books, there are two little references to Jesus that have inspired a . Back Issues of Japanese Religions Back issues may be downloaded for personal use only.
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