Carboxylic acid and derivatives

The functional group of a carboxylic ester is an acyl group bonded to OR or OAr, where R represents an alkyl group and Ar represents an aryl group. The reverse of the esterification reaction is an example of hydrolysis. Esters may also be obtained by reaction of acid halides or acid anhydrides with alcohols or by reaction of salts of carboxylic acids with alkyl halides.

Carboxylic acid and derivatives

Nitroso compounds can be prepared by the reduction of nitro compounds or by the oxidation of hydroxylamines. Nitro Compounds are organic compounds that contain one or more nitro functional groups -NO2.

Carboxylic acid and derivatives

They are often highly explosive; various impurities or improper handling can easily trigger a violent exothermic decomposition.

Aromatic nitro compounds are typically synthesized by the action of a mixture of nitric and sulfuric acids on a suitable organic molecule. Some examples of such compounds are trinitrophenol picric acid and trinitrotoluene TNT.

In the -C N group, the carbon atom and the nitrogen atom are triple bonded together. The prefix cyano- is used in chemical nomenclature to indicate the presence of a nitrile group in a molecule.

Carboxylic acid and derivatives

A cyanide ion is a negative ion with the formula CN. The -CN group is sometimes, less properly, referred to as a cyanide group or cyano group and compounds with them are sometimes referred to as cyanides.

Nitriles sometimes release the highly toxic CN- cyanide ion. Imines, due to their diverse reactivity, are common substrates in a wide variety of transformations. An imine can be synthesised by the nucleophilic addition of an amine to a ketone or aldehyde giving a hemiaminal -C OH NHR - followed by an elimination of water to yield the imine.

The structure of cyanate can be considered to resonate. The C N functionality is connected to the organic fragment via the nitrogen atom, not via carbon as is found in the isomeric nitriles, which have the connectivity R-CN.

Hence the prefix iso. Nitrogen and carbon are connected through a triple bond with a positive charge on nitrogen and a negative charge on carbon. If the R' is hydrogen, the compound is called an organic hydroperoxide.

The O-O bond easily breaks and forms free radicals of the form RO. This makes organic peroxides useful as catalysts for some types of polymerization. Being the sulfur analogue of an alcohol group -OHthis functional group is referred to either as a thiol group or a sulfhydryl group.

Thiolate ions have the form R-S. Such anions arise upon treatment of thiols with base.

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Like many other sulfur-containing compounds, volatile thioethers characteristically have foul odors. A thioether is similar to an ether except that it contains a sulfur atom in place of the oxygen.In organic chemistry, functional groups are specific groups of atoms within molecules, that are responsible for the characteristic chemical reactions of those molecules.

The same functional group will undergo the same or similar chemical reaction(s) regardless of the size of the molecule it is a part of.

Today we'll look at carboxylic acid derivatives. This group of compounds also contains a carbonyl group, but now there is an electronegative atom (oxygen, nitrogen, .

REDUCTION OF CARBOXYLIC ACID DERIVATIVES The CAN of the imine, like the CAO of an aldehyde, undergoes nucleophilic addition with “H3_ ” from _AlH 4 or from one of the other hydride-containing species in the reaction mixture.

Carboxylic acids undergo reactions to produce derivatives of the acid. The most common derivatives formed are esters, acid halides, acid anhydrides, and amides. Esters are compounds formed by the reaction of carboxylic acids with alcohols, and they have a general structural formula of: The simplest.

How to analyze the reactivity of the carboxylic acid derivatives using induction and resonance effects. Structure, nomenclature and occurrence of acid derivatives: Esters: Typically originate from a carboxylic acid and an alcohol Nomenclature: Name consists of 2 parts: alkyl group name (R’)+ acid salt name (R – COO-).

Amine Reactions